Category: reqgyx

  • De Bruyne will be a Man City player ‘by the weekend’, talkSPORT told

    first_imgManchester City will complete the big-money signing of Belgium playmaker Kevin De Bruyne from Wolfsburg ‘by the weekend’, talkSPORT have been told.Having chased the Bundesliga star – crowned Germany’s Player of the Year last season – all summer, City have finally agreed a deal to bring the former Chelsea man back to the Premier League.Reports on Thursday suggested the two-time English champions have met the German club’s £58million valuation – an initial £54m fee plus add ons – and German football expert Olly Knaack reveals the midfielder is set to pen an ‘insane’ contract at the Etihad Stadium.He told the Alan Brazil Sports Breakfast: “He’s coming. He will be a Manchester City player by the weekend.“The deal is pretty much done, the only thing that’s missing is his signature, but sources say it’s really close now.“We’re looking at a five-year deal and the numbers are insane, it’s like Ronaldo or Bale dimensions.“I’m not sure he can actually live up to that. He was THE star at Wolfburg, but he’s just one of many stars at Manchester City.“But if you’re got all the money in the world, why not sign him?”last_img read more

  • Judge throws out crash insurance claims after doctor calls it a “bumper car’ incident

    first_imgA Judge has thrown out personal injury claims by two people after hearing the car crash in which they were in had the same impact as a bumper car at at a fairground.Judge James O’Donoghue dismissed the cases of Eileen Ward and Charlie Ward when they appeared at Letterkenny Circuit Court. The pair, who are related by marriage, were both claiming against the driver of the car, Mr Ward’s wife Kathleen, following a collision at Ratoath in Co Meath in February, 2012.Mrs Kathleen Ward, from Ard Glass, Glencar Irish, Letterkenny, did not give evidence in today’s case.Both claimants gave evidence that they suffered neck and back injuries as a result of the accident and were suing Liberty Insurance for personal injuries.The amount of financial damages being sought by both people was not disclosed during the case.Eileen Ward, aged 42, from Cavan at Letterkenny Circuit Court today (North West Newspix)However, the court was told that there was minimal impact in the crash.Two other people in the car had also started personal injury claims against the driver but one had already been struck out.The incident happened when the Nissan Primera car being driven by Ms Kathleen Ward, slid into the back of a car stopped at a set of traffic lights at Fairyhouse, Ratoath.There were five occupants in the car including Eileen Ward, Charlie Ward, Kathleen Ward, another Charlie Ward and a cousin Michael Mongan.The Toyota Corrolla car parked at the red traffic light was being driven by computer science student Mr Liviu Ioan Pantille who was returning from lectures at Maynooth University.Mr Pantille was unhurt in the incident and paid the €100 to repair the tow bar of his car out of his own pocket, the court heard.The court was shown pictures of some small damage to the front of the Nissan Primera car caused by the tow bar of the other car.Kathleen Ward, 42, said she was a front seat passenger and banged her face off the dashboard of the car upon impact but stressed that she was wearing a seatbelt.She described the impact of both cars as “shocking.”She said she suffered lower back pain and attended Cavan General Hospital the following day and took a course of painkillers.Charlie Ward, aged 30, from St martin’s Estate, Cavan, said he was a back-seat passenger, who also banged his head off the headrest in front of him.He claimed he suffered head and neck pain and attended Our Lady of Lourdes Hospital four days after the accident.Neither claimants suffered long-term injury and a medical report on Mrs Eileen Ward said her pain would leave in weeks rather than months.Barrister for driver Mrs Kathleen Ward, Seamus Breen, claimed minimal impact occurred during the crash.In a medical report, Dr Martin Coyne compared the injuries suffered to that people might receive in a bumper car incident at a fairground.Judge James O’Donoghue dismissed both claims saying he was satisfied there was minimal impact and that they were “opportunist claims.”“I am happy on the evidence that there was a very small impact of a minimal type. These are opportunist claims that I am meeting on a regular basis throughout the country.“I am satisfied that it was a bumper car like incident and it has all the hallmarks of an opportunist effort to exploit a minimal impact and make the most of it,” he said.He dismissed both claims.Judge throws out crash insurance claims after doctor calls it a “bumper car’ incident was last modified: January 11th, 2017 by StephenShare this:Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window)Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window)Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window)Click to share on Reddit (Opens in new window)Click to share on Pocket (Opens in new window)Click to share on Telegram (Opens in new window)Click to share on WhatsApp (Opens in new window)Click to share on Skype (Opens in new window)Click to print (Opens in new window) Tags:ClaimcourtcrashinusranceJudge James O’Donoghueletterkennylast_img read more

  • Feds may be ‘borrowing from the fire’

    first_imgANGELES NATIONAL FOREST – A proposal to shift a $500 million Forest Service fund reserve from firefighting to Hurricane Katrina recovery efforts might not be a complete catastrophe. But the prudence of moving money from one natural disaster to another depends completely on the whim of Mother Nature. “If we have a normal fire season, there’s probably no effect,” said Cid Morgan, district ranger for the Santa Clara/Mojave Rivers district. “If we have a barn burner, it could make a difference. It’s all going to depend on what fire season is like.” U.S. Forest Service officials warn that recent cooler weather might have lulled the public – and politicians – into a false sense of security that fire season is completely over. “We did have several extraordinary years recently, especially in 2000, 2002 and 2003,” said Stanton Florea, fire information officer for the Angeles National Forest. “The last couple of years were closer to the 10-year average that is used to determine our needs. But we know that, in the western states, we’re still at a very high danger level. We have an active season much later in the year. It’s really hard to compare this area with the rest of the country.” President George W. Bush has proposed moving the money because 2005 hasn’t been a very bad year for fires. The reduction is the largest portion of a $2.3 billion package of cuts affecting several federal programs, including one promoting prison literacy. The plan has yet to be approved by Congress. The $500 million wildfire reserve was approved by Congress last year to augment a $700 million annual allocation for normal firefighting costs. During particularly busy fire seasons, monies have been appropriated from other federal agencies to cover costs. The 2004 setaside was intended to eliminate that practice. Agency staff members were already anticipating budget cuts even before the reserve proposal was made. Morgan is figuring on a 10 percent to 20 percent budget cut in fiscal 2006. “Somebody has to pay for Katrina and the war in Iraq,” she said. “It’s like when you’re balancing your checkbook and the transmission goes out. The money has to come from somewhere. They no longer call it borrowing from fire; it’s just a reappropriation.” Dan Jiron, spokesman for the U.S. Forest Service in Washington, said that, since the elimination of the reserve was still in the proposal stage, he could not comment, but added that incident management teams from the Forest Service were sent to the hurricane areas to assist in recovery efforts. More than 100 workers from the Angeles National Forest were temporarily reassigned, from two crews of 20 people each responding to recovery efforts, to more than 70 employees who worked distributing food and assistance to victims at various shelters and service centers. “We have $500 million in reserve from 2005 and our annual budgeted $700 million strictly for fire suppression is not endangered,” Jiron said. “The Forest Service will be able to continue its fire prevention efforts, such as thinning. That is a priority of our chief.” Congress will vote on the proposal in the coming weeks. Carol Rock, (661) 257-5252 carol.rock@dailynews.com AD Quality Auto 360p 720p 1080p Top articles1/5READ MOREWalnut’s Malik Khouzam voted Southern California Boys Athlete of the Week160Want local news?Sign up for the Localist and stay informed Something went wrong. Please try again.subscribeCongratulations! You’re all set!last_img read more

  • Uganda draws hosts Egypt, DR Congo at AFCON 2019

    first_img Tags: AFCON 2019DR CongoEgypttopUganda Cranes Uganda’s best finish at the finals came in 1978AFCON 201921st June-19th July, 2019EgyptCAIRO – The Uganda National football team, the Cranes have been drawn in group A of the 2019 Africa Cup of Nations.In a draw that was conducted on Friday, 12th April, the Cranes are in group A along side the hosts and record champions Egypt, Zimbabwe and Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC).The last time Uganda faced these side, they lost 1-0 to Egypt in the 2018 World cup qualifiers, lost 2-0 to Zimbabwe in a friendly three years ago.Egypt are the record holders of the competition, winning it 7 times with the last coming 9 years ago.DR Congo on the other hand have won it twice with their last triumph coming in 1974.For Zimbabwe, they are making their fourth appearance at the finals and have never gone past the group stages before.This is the 32nd edition of the tournament with Uganda’s best finish coming in 1978 when they were beaten by Ghana in the final.Unlike in the past, this edition that will be played across 6 cities, will have 24 teams with only 16 making it to the knockout stages.The top two in each group and best four third placed Nations will make it to the round of 16.The six Groups at AFCON 2019:Group A.-Egypt-DR congo-Uganda-ZimbabweGroup B.-Nigeria-Guinea-Madagascar-BurundiGroup C.-Senegal-Algeria-Kenya-TanzaniaGroup D.-Morocco-Cotedvoire-South Africa-NamibiaGroup E.-Tunisia-Mali-Mauritania-AngolaGroup F.-Cameroon-Ghana-Benin-Guinea Bissau*More details to followComments last_img read more

  • Stupid Evolution Quote of the Week:  Scientists, Learn Darwinism on TV

    first_imgIn Current Biology, Kenneth E. Sawin of Wellcome Trust Center for Cell Biology at Edinburgh University was interviewed about his career.  One of the questions was, “What are the big ideas for you now?”  Here is part of his answer:Another thing that I think about, which may be more ethereal, is that cell biologists interested in molecular mechanisms should always be reminding themselves that evolution proceeds without any predestined direction, and this is as true for cellular regulatory mechanisms as it is for organismal evolution [sic].  Even if we don’t think too much about evolution in our day-to-day work, it is the backdrop against which everything takes place, and one needs to keep a very open mind [sic], and not be too dogmatic, about how biological systems may be “designed”, because there is no designer [sic].  The best stimulus for this is to watch a few nature programs on TV. (Emphasis added.)1“Q&A: Kenneth E. Sawin,” Current Biology, Vol 16, R268-R269, 18 April 2006.If anyone can figure out how being dogmatic about evolution is an example of open-mindedness, or how directionlessness produced cellular regulatory mechanisms, or how maintaining faith in purposelessness as a backdrop aids thinking, or how telling oneself there is no designer demonstrates things are not designed, let us know.  Notice two other things he said: (1) scientists don’t think too much about evolution in their day-to-day work, indicating that evolutionary theory is useless, and (2) TV is this evolutionist’s source of inspiration (see visualization in the Baloney Detector).  So producers get their stimulus from the dogmatic claims of the evolutionary biologists, and biologists in turn get their inspiration from watching the resulting TV shows: a vicious cycle, with emphasis on vicious.    Example: last night The Science Channel replayed The Rise of Man, one of the dumbest examples of evolutionary storytelling ever made for the tube.  In this ridiculous portrayal of made-up history, presented in all seriousness, naked ape-faced actors invent religion when lightning strikes, invent language when stealing ostrich eggs, invent the family when she-ape needs help in childbirth, and invent art when one ape-man sticks a shiny stone on his female’s mud-plastered forehead.  The group all giggles in the mud together at this new sign of beauty.  If this is Sawin’s inspiration, God help him.    Cave Man was much better.  At least Ringo Starr, Barbara Bach and John Matuszak all knew it was only a spoof.  Let’s offer Sawin and his ilk free unending reruns of all the evolution shows they want; maybe this will keep them in a permanent state of euphoria – and out of the classroom. (Visited 8 times, 1 visits today)FacebookTwitterPinterestSave分享0last_img read more

  • Dinosaur Soft Tissue “Explained”

    first_img(Visited 561 times, 1 visits today)FacebookTwitterPinterestSave分享0 The discoverer of soft tissue in dinosaur bone now has a new explanation for its preservation – but does it really answer the obvious question?According to Live Science, Mary Schweitzer’s “controversial T. rex soft tissue find” has been “finally explained.”  The answer is: iron.  The iron in hemoglobin acts like a formaldehyde, preserving the delicate proteins and stretchy blood vessels.  But does it really preserve it for up to 145 million years?A press release from North Carolina State describes the hypothesis coming from theory and from experiment.  In theory, iron atoms must be guarded against in cells because of their reactive potential.  After death, though, reactive iron becomes a guardian of preservation, because it forms cross-links with proteins, preventing them from decay.  (This process also makes soft tissue hard to detect, Schweitzer says.)  The experimental part involved soaking recently-killed ostrich vessels (removed from decalcified bones) in water and in blood.  The water-soaked material decayed into a goopy mess in less than a week.  Because of iron in hemoglobin, the blood-soaked soft tissues remained “recognizable” for two years at room temperature, retaining their basic structure.The press release is tentative, saying iron “may be the key” to preservation, “may play a role” in preserving ancient tissues, and, in Schweitzer’s words, “may be both the mechanism for preservation and the reason why we’ve had problems finding and analyzing proteins that are preserved.”The article does not deny the authenticity of the soft tissue, but only tries to offer an explanation for the unexpected preservation.  Stephanie Pappas in the Live Science article gave some emphasis to the “controversial” nature of the “seemingly impossible” soft-tissue claim.  “The find was also controversial, because scientists had thought proteins that make up soft tissue should degrade in less than 1 million years in the best of conditions,” she wrote, but then acknowledged that, despite alternate theories, the 2005 claim and subsequent soft tissue finds in even older dinosaur bones (145.5 million evolutionary years) proved real.  Schweitzer noted that scientists often don’t see what they don’t expect to see:“The problem is, for 300 years, we thought, ‘Well, the organics are all gone, so why should we look for something that’s not going to be there?’ and nobody looks,” she said.The obvious question, though, was how soft, pliable tissue could survive for millions of years….The new explanation may be welcome news for evolutionists.  Pappas writes, “Dinosaurs’ iron-rich blood, combined with a good environment for fossilization, may explain the amazing existence of soft tissue from the Cretaceous (a period that lasted from about 65.5 million to 145.5 million years ago) and even earlier.”  Armed with better techniques, Schweitzer’s team is going to go hunting for more dinosaur soft tissue next summer.Hold your hadrosaurs; this does not solve the evolutionists’ problem.  For one thing, Schweitzer and, independently, Mark Armitage, found osteocytes (bone cells) in their samples, not just blood vessels.  The osteocytes retain their original structure, including their delicate dendrites.  For another, two years of preservation is .000001% of 145 million years.  On what basis can they justify extrapolating such exquisite preservation that far, when the ostrich bone was “recognizable,” indicating some degradation had occurred?  Nobody on earth has “experienced” 65 million years, let alone a few thousand (provided that written records can substitute for personal experience).  The evolutionists are assuming the long ages, not demonstrating them.  In spite of this strong evidence against millions of years, they are hanging onto that belief like a baby gripping its pacifier.The articles betray a subtext of desperation.  Pappas described the soft-tissue claims as “amazing” and “seemingly impossible.”  They seem relieved that this iron hypothesis “may” provide an answer.  Yet other admissions in the articles support the creationist Flood interpretation.  “The bones of these various specimens are articulated, not scattered, suggesting they were buried quickly,” Pappas noted.  “They’re also buried in sandstone….”  Try to imagine circumstances in which a T. rex strutting across a desert suddenly became completely buried, such that burrowing creatures were unable to reach it and disarticulate it.  There aren’t too many options available.  Even so, up till the surprising discovery by Schweitzer, “scientists had thought proteins that make up soft tissue should degrade in less than 1 million years in the best of conditions.”  They weren’t looking for it; they were shocked when they saw it with their own eyes.  For years they have been scrambling to answer the “obvious question” – how soft, pliable tissue could survive for millions of years.”  Have they ever considered the obvious answer?  It can’t, and it didn’t.The evolutionists show no shame for their falsified long ages.  Instead, they boast as if they will find soft tissue millions of years older!  They are like the delusional man in a joke who claimed he was dead.  His doctor attempted to prove him wrong, asking, “Do dead men bleed?”  The man replied, “No, dead men do not bleed.”  The doctor proceeded to prick him with a needle, showing blood oozing from the man’s arm.  “Well, I’ll be darned!  Dead men do bleed!”  Like the delusional man, evolutionists will never give up their belief in millions of years, even when the facts bleed otherwise right in front of their eyes.We welcome more exploration by the Schweitzer team and anyone else with access to fossils and the equipment to analyze it.  Let the data that “nobody looks” for come to the surface.last_img read more

  • South Africa’s economy not declining but it faces difficulties

    first_imgIn the current challenging economic climate, Finance Minister Pravin Gordhan’s Medium Term Budget Policy Statement (MTBPS), delivered to Parliament on 26 October 2016, focused on social development and transformation. The biggest challenge South Africa faces, Gordhan said, is slow global growth and its effect on investment and trade in South Africa.This is one of the reasons for a R23-billion shortfall in projected revenue, a deficit that will have to be recouped through raised tax rates. The minister conceded that he faced a challenge of implementing measures that raised government revenues without inhibiting investment.Gordhan’s solution is to stabilise and consolidate national debt and prioritise capital investment.Over the next three years, R900-billion will be invested in infrastructure development with an emphasis on the telecommunications, energy and transport sectors.Additional funding will be channelled into health services, tertiary education and social programmes.Minister Gordhan stressed that government priorities remained:Progress in providing housing, clean water and sanitation for all.Creating equal access to health care.Accelerating job creation and small enterprise development.Expanding access to further education and advancing the country’s technological capabilities.South Africa’s economy faces difficulties, but the economy is not in decline, Gordhan stressed.To take advantage of the opportunities for growth, government would prioritise the financing of education. “We are especially mindful of the need to expand access to post-school education opportunities,” Gordhan said, but added “this is not enough: our progress rests on improvements in the entire education system.”In addition to a R16-billion boost to the higher education budget, a further R9- billion is earmarked for the National Student Financial Aid Scheme. The effect of fee increases will be bankrolled by an additional R8-billion to aid households with an income under R600 000. These measures recognise that graduates do contribute, through taxes and loan repayments, to the next generation of students.All of these objectives, the minister explained, had to be met without leaving a legacy of debt for future generations. These aims, summed up as social transformation and inclusive economic growth, would ensure opportunities and the chance of a better life for all South Africans.Economic growth would ensure a stable and vibrant democratic South Africa.By prioritising where the government can best spend revenue and, more importantly, cut unnecessary and wasteful government expenditure, the ministry will be able to increase social grants. This modest increase – an additional R10 a month – has been necessitated by rising food costs.Other social programme spending includes:An expansion in government HIV/Aids programmes, which now reach 3.5 million people.Increases in the National Health Insurance’s conditional grant to continue the contracting of general practitioners and bring professional capacity into the School Health Programme.New conditional grant for employment of social workers.Extended child support grant for orphans.Funding for 39 000 Funza Lushaka bursaries for prospective teachers.Minister Gordhan’s statement also covered economic development, especially growth that encouraged the building of a more inclusive economy. Over the medium term the minister has proposed:R45-billion to promote industrialisation, economic transformation and sustainable resource management.An agri-parks initiative to help small farmers with production, marketing and training.A reassignment of housing funds to speed up investment in rental housing units and planning of catalytic projects in large towns and cities.Establishment of the National Radioactive Waste Disposal Institute.Funding for the N2 Wild Coast road, the Moloto road and improved maintenance of both national and provincial roads.High-speed internet access in government buildings.“Fifty-five million South Africans want to see and experience real change in their lives, and continuous progress,” Gordhan emphasised.The minister challenged all South Africans to embrace a collective and concerted effort to find solutions for sustainable growth and eradicating poverty. If South Africans want the promise of the National Development Plan to be realised, Gordhan said, the country needed to embrace stable and sustainable public finances, as well as economic reforms and a transparent monetary policy.There are promising “green shoots” in the economy that can only be nurtured if the finance ministry’s holistic package of measures to grow the economy are enacted. “No one measure will work,” Gordhan said, “our approach is to mobilise efforts across many fronts, and to recognise a diversity of contributions in an open and multi-faceted development framework.”Gordhan’s MTBPS once again reaffirms an approach to building a national consensus on development and transformation. The minister set out the aims of his budget:The objective is inclusive growth.Limits would be set on government debt and expenditure while the administration would encourage public and private sector investment.The government-endorsed nine-point development plan would guide policy.Broadening inclusive participation, growth and development will require multi- ministerial policy initiatives.“All of us have expectations of government, of the economy and indeed of our political system. We expect delivery,” Gordhan concluded. “We expect change for the better. We expect progress in South Africa. Above all, we expect a better future for our children – particularly through education.”SouthAfrica.info reporterWould you like to use this article in your publication or on your website? See Using SouthAfrica.info materiallast_img read more

  • Take a five-minute holiday to South Africa

    first_img16 April 2015An action-packed, five-minute holiday to South Africa from your bar stool in London or Manchester – that’s what’s on offer this month in the United Kingdom.South African Tourism is using Oculus Rift technology and targeting bars in the two cities, where consumers can put on a virtual reality headset and experience South African in high definition and binaural sound, creating an immersive experience.Through 360-degree head tracking, Oculus Rift allows viewers to explore the virtual world just as they would in real life.The five-minute holiday takes the viewer to Table Mountain, where they experience what it’s like to abseil down a sheer cliff, with full-circle views of the sea behind and the city in the distance. Other adventurous scenes include kite-surfing, paragliding and feeding elephants, before relaxing in a bar in Johannesburg’s Neighbourgoods Market.All scenes were filmed on location, where the Oculus Rift technology was adapted accordingly. A shark cage-diving scene in Cape Town required the footage to be shot underwater, using a specially made 3D-printed underwater camera rig.The first bar takeover will take place on Friday, 24 April at Corbet Place, Brick Lane, London. The next venue is NoHo, in Manchester’s Northern Quarter, on Thursday 30 April. Other dates will be announced on South African Tourism’s Twitter and Facebook accounts.Oculus is technology company that, it says, “is revolutionising the way people experience video games”. The Rift uses custom tracking technology allowing users to wear goggles and headphones and look around the virtual world just they would in real life. Every subtle movement of your head is tracked in real time, creating a natural and intuitive experience, Oculus says.Selected bars hosting the virtual reality pods are encouraged to add to the experience with DJs, South African street food and wine-tasting sessions from the Cape Wine Academy. Visuals of South African landscapes and wildlife are also projected throughout the event space.Juan Herrada, South African Tourism’s UK manager of marketing and communications, said: “We want to surprise the UK travelling public and Oculus Rift is the ideal partner for us to reach a young, tech-savvy market. This is the first time Oculus Rift and binaural sound have been combined to create a unique, immersive holiday experience for the UK public.”Brand Warrior promotional staff are also on hand at the takeovers to answer questions and encourage consumers to enter a competition to win a pair of flights to South Africa. South African Tourism is working with agencies UM London, Visualise, Somethin Else and Tribe on the campaign.SAinfo reporterlast_img read more

  • Late planted corn considerations as harvest nears

    first_imgShare Facebook Twitter Google + LinkedIn Pinterest Because of the extended planting window that the 2017 Spring forced on farmers, some corn is just about ready to go and some corn has quite a ways to go. What are some causes for concern when it comes to the later planted fields. Brodbeck Seeds Regional Agronomist Denny Wickham has some insights.last_img

  • Inefficient Hot Water Piping Layouts Waste Hot Water

    first_imgThe proposal would set requirements resulting in small volumes of hot water in the pipes between the hot water source and the use. It is intended to apply to all occupancies, although in the article I am focusing on residential applications.The ICC is holding Final Action Hearings on October 22-28, 2012 in Portland, Oregon. The proposed amendments to the International Plumbing Code (IPC) will be heard on Wednesday, October 24th, starting at 1:00 pm.Among the key provisions in the proposed change are:a requirement that 3/8-inch pipe should only be used for fixture fittings that have a flow rate that does not exceed 1.5 gallons per minute;a requirement (for some residential applications) that the maximum volume of water in the pipe between the water heater and a tap shall be 64 ounces;a requirement (for some residential applications) that the maximum length of piping between a water heater and a tap be restricted to 50 feet for 3/8-tubing, 43 feet for 1/2-inch tubing, and 21 feet for 3/4-inch tubing.To understand how these provisions would be implemented, it is essential to read the code proposal in its entirely. (See the link provided below.) The “reasons statement” accompanying the proposed code changeAs an I-code, the IPC specifies minimally acceptable requirements for plumbing. Delivery of hot water to a user in a timely manner is one measure of plumbing performance. The American Society of Plumbing Engineers (ASPE) specifies the delivery of hot water to the user in 10 seconds or less as “acceptable performance,” delivery of hot water to the user in 30 seconds or less as “marginal performance,” and delivery of hot water in more than 30 seconds as “unacceptable performance”. Implementing this proposal will improve health and safety by correlating the IPC with local health codes and with good plumbing engineering and plumbing practice. It will also result in satisfied users, including those in areas with low water pressure.The core of this proposal is to make sure the volume of water in the pipes, which must be cleared out before hot water can be delivered, does not prevent the delivery of hot water in a timely manner. If you agree that delivery of hot water should be at least “marginally acceptable” in terms of time-to-tap, then you need to support this proposal.Supporting InformationThe following documents the values in this proposal and demonstrates the response to the committee’s comments. The committee [previously] disapproved P130 because the “volume limitations were too restrictive and unrealistic to apply to all buildings.” In response, this comment increases the lengths for smaller diameter branches from circulation loops or heat-traced lines. It also improves the readability of the code text.Why implementing the 2012 IPC often results in “Unacceptable Performance”The 2012 IPC allows for 50 feet of developed length [of piping] – of any diameter – from the source of hot or tempered water to the fixtures. However, the delivery of hot water is a question of volume (length and diameter) between the source and the uses and flow rate of the use. At current legal flow rates for faucets, showers and many appliances, 50 feet of piping contains more water than can be cleared out in the Marginally Acceptable time of 30 seconds or less, let alone the Acceptable Performance time of 10 seconds or less.We are all familiar with the problem of waiting for hot water to arrive. When it takes too long at hand-washing sinks, many of us just give up and use whatever temperature comes out. When it takes too long at a shower, we watch the water run down the drain until the water is hot enough to use. When it takes too long in public restrooms or at hand washing sinks in food service establishments, it becomes a concern for our public health code colleagues.Providing hot or tempered water to public lavatory faucets is a special case, and the reason we have called it out in this proposal. The time-to-tap is particularly important for hand washing events, which tend to be of very short duration, generally 5-10 seconds long. Large volume in the fixture supply piping, low flow rates and short events result in it taking a very long time for the water to get warm. Correcting this requires keeping the volume small enough so that hot water arrives in a timely fashion when only one faucet with a maximum fixture fitting flow rate of 0.5 gpm or a maximum volume per cycle of 0.25 gallons is being used. Having even Marginally Acceptable performance requires piping lengths much less than 50 feet long.Can a volume limit be applied to all buildings?Yes. The specifics have to do with the configuration of the hot water system within the building. There are three typical configurations for a hot water system: a central water heater (or boiler) with trunks and branches serving each use or group of uses; a central water heater (or boiler) with a circulation loop or heat traced trunk line and branches to each use; distributed water heaters (or boilers) located close to the uses they serve. Buildings can have one or a combination of these systems as long as the 2012 IPC requirement of no more than 50 feet of developed length on any path from the source to the use is met.The volume limitations in this proposal work in any building. Buildings with vertical risers will be able to comply by locating the fixture fittings and appliances close to a circulated riser; this should not be a problem as they are relatively close already. Buildings with a central corridor circulation loop will be able to comply by locating the hot water fixture fittings and appliances closer to the corridor or by moving the loop closer to the fixture fittings and appliances. Buildings with public lavatories can meet the volume and length limits in this proposal in several ways including bringing circulation loops closer to the faucets, priming the branch lines that run behind the wall when people enter the lavatory, heat tracing the branch lines or installing water heaters in the bathroom or under the sinks.In some buildings, no changes to architectural design will be needed – it will only be necessary to design and install the plumbing to meet the new code. In other buildings changes in the architectural design will be needed so that the hot water system will meet the new code. It is likely that we will see more buildings with combinations of hot water delivery systems. Based on my experience with improving the performance of hot water systems throughout the US, costs for additional water heaters or for somewhat longer circulation loops and heat traced trunk lines will be more than offset by the savings in smaller diameter trunk lines and in shorter branches that are often of smaller diameter because their length is smaller too.What should be the maximum allowable volume?Implementing the IPC should result in at least marginally acceptable performance at legal flow rates, in all occupancies, even in areas with low water pressure. The American Society of Plumbing Engineers (ASPE) has established performance criteria for the timely delivery of hot or tempered water (Domestic Water Heating Design Manual – 2nd Edition, ASPE, 2003, page 234). Table 1 [reproduced below as Image #2], taken from text in ASPE’s manual, presents the time-to-tap performance criteria. According to this table, 30 seconds is the maximum amount of time to have Marginal Performance. Anything longer is unacceptable.So how much water is contained the IPC allowable limit of 50 feet of developed pipe length? Will clearing out this volume of water result in at least marginally acceptable performance? Table 2 [reproduced below as Image #3] shows the volume contained in 50 feet of pipe for nominal diameters up to 4 inches. (I realize that 50 feet of developed length is almost always shorter than 50 feet of pipe, but for simplicity, I have used 50 feet in the table.)Let’s look at a few examples: 50 feet of ¾ inch tubing contains 1.2 gallons, 50 feet of 1 inch contains just under 2 gallons, 50 feet of 2 inch contains 7 gallons and 50 feet of 4 inch contains more than 28 gallons. This is the minimum volume that must be cleared out of the pipe before hot water will get from the source to the use. (Based on research conducted by the California Energy Commission, the actual volume that will come out before hot water arrives is more than volume contained in the pipe. In ¾ inch nominal pipe, approximately 25 percent more water will come out at 2 gpm; 50 percent more will come out at 1 gpm and 100 percent more will come out at 0.5 gpm. The amount of additional water that comes out gets larger as the pipe diameter increases.)Table 2 [Image #3 below] also shows the consequences of the volume in terms of the time-to-tap for flow rates of 2, 1 and 0.5 gpm. This range of flow rates is typical of showers, sinks and public lavatory faucets. Near the top of the table, the minimum time to clear out the cold water in the pipe is shown in seconds, further down it is shown in minutes. (NA is shown when we considered the flow rate to be excessive for the pipe diameter – either too much pressure drop or excessive velocity, or both – based on an analysis using the Hazen-Williams formula.)None of the times shown in Table 2 are within the Acceptable Performance range. This means that if plumbers or plumbing engineers design a hot water system to meet the minimum 2012 IPC, without also paying attention to the volume in the piping it will most often result in Unacceptable Performance. The best they can get is Marginal Performance in a limited number of cases. Table 3 [reproduced below as Image #4] compares the time-to-tap performance different volumes that are being discussed at this Final Action Hearing. The flow rates in the table are typical of faucets and showerheads, and many appliances such as dishwashers and washing machines.Using ASPE’s criteria, only 3 data points in Table 3 have Acceptable Performance; 9 have Marginal Performance; all the rest have Unacceptable Performance. None of the volumes have Acceptable Performance for the low flow rates (0.5 gpm and smaller) found in public lavatory faucets. In addition, the Performance times shown in the 0.25 and 0.5 gpm columns are longer than the actual event itself, which is often only 5-10 seconds long. To make any sense at all, hot water must reach the faucet before the event is over, which is why there is a separate volume requirement in this proposal for the fixture fittings with these flow rates that are found in public lavatories.We need to assess the performance when flow rates are between 1 and 1.5 gpm, not the maximum values of 2.2 and 2.5 gpm allowed by code for faucets and showers respectively. Why? One reason is that the flow rates of faucets and showers are rated at pressures of 60 and 80 psi respectively. In practice, operating pressures are often less than the rated pressure and the actual flow rate is less than the rated flow rate. In addition, hot water is only a portion of the total flow rate. The reduction in flow rate is most noticeable in areas with low water pressure to begin with. Another reason is that studies done in Indiana, California and Minnesota have found that even when full flow rate faucets and showers had been installed, the hot water portion of the flow was most often between 1 and 1.5 gpm. In this range of flow rates, the 300-ounce volume has Unacceptable Performance. The 75-ounce volume has both Unacceptable and Marginal Performance. The 64-ounce volume has Marginal Performance. The 24-ounce volume has both Marginal and Acceptable Performance. I believe the IPC should provide at least marginally acceptable performance at typical flow rates for all areas in the jurisdiction, including those with low pressure.This section only applies to Public Lavatory FaucetsThe time-to-tap is particularly important for hand washing events in public lavatories, which tend to be of very short duration. It becomes essential to keep the volume from the source to the use very small when the fixture fitting flow rate is only 0.5 gpm. Looking at the row for ½ inch nominal tubing in Table 2, the minimum time to clear out the cold water would be 1.2 minutes. Assuming that each hot water draw lasts 5 seconds, and that all draws happen right after each other, the 15th user would get hot water. If the branch line were larger, say ¾ inch, the minimum time increases to 2.3 minutes and the 28th user would get hot water. If the branch line was 1 inch, the minimum time increases to 3.9 minutes and the 47th user would get hot water.The delivery of hot water to public lavatory faucets needs to be considered separately because of potential health issues. The events are short and the flow rates are low. Table 4 [reproduced below as Image #5] shows the time-to-tap performance based on the requirements in the proposal. The 0.25 and 0.5 gpm columns show that even at very low flow rates this volume will result in Acceptable Performance according to ASPE criteria. Given the short amount of time people spend washing their hands in public restrooms, it does not make sense to Marginal Performance category for determining the volume from the source to the use for public lavatory faucets. The volume was chosen so that hot water would arrive in the first part of the hot water event so that every person who uses the public lavatory will have the benefits of hot water.Now to the decisionThe provisions in the 2012 IPC (and previous versions), which only limit the feet, do not give guidance on the volume and as we have shown, often as not result in Unacceptable Performance. Unfortunately, many of us have experienced this! In contrast, this proposal contains the provisions necessary to support the correlation of the plumbing and health codes with good plumbing engineering design and plumbing installation practice.There are 3 key questions that we are asking you to answer:1. Do you want the IPC to support the provisions in local health codes to supply hot or tempered water for hand washing for every user of public lavatory faucets?2. Do you want the IPC to support the ability of plumbers and plumbing engineers to provide hot water within 30 seconds after opening the tap; this is the Acceptable and Marginal Performance ranges as defined the American Society of Plumbing Engineers. (See the arrows next to Tables 3 and 4.)3. Do you want the IPC to provide these levels of performance in all parts of your jurisdiction, including those with low water pressure?If so, please support this comment. Assembling the required votesTo get this proposal adopted, we need to have enough code officials who support the measure to attend the hearing and vote for it. We need a two-thirds majority to prevail. So please talk with your local code officials and ask them to support it. If they are not able to travel to Portland, ask them to get you in touch with those from your state who are going to attend. If that is not possible, please ask them to send a short letter of support that can be read into the record.If you are able to attend the meeting in Portland, short statements providing reasons why this proposal is worthy of a “yes” vote are in order. We need perspectives from the point of view of architects, plumbing engineers, builders and plumbers. I am willing to help you craft your testimony so that is most effective for this audience. What is the key to an efficient piping layout for domestic hot water? The answer is to keep the volume of hot water between the water heater and the tap as small as possible. The difficulty is that most buildings have only one source of hot water and the many uses are spread throughout the floor plan.The least expensive answer for new buildings would be to group all of the bathrooms near the kitchen, so that the home has one or more plumbing cores. That way, that hot and cold water uses would all be located close together, near the water heater or boiler that served them. In houses, this would typically mean one or two such cores.In the absence of such cores, we need to plan the plumbing to supply hot water as efficiently as possible. Those of you who know my work have heard about Structured Plumbing. (For more information on Structured Plumbing, see Saving Water and Energy in Residential Hot Water Distribution Systems and Guidelines for Specifying Structured Plumbing Systems.)Structured Plumbing is a method of running the trunk line of the hot water distribution system from the water heater past the hot water uses so that the volume from the trunk to each use is as small as practical, ideally less than 1 cup. In addition to routing the hot water supply close to each use, the Structured Plumbing approach includes a demand-initiated pump that allows the occupants to prime the trunk line shortly before they want hot water.Green Building Advisor has had several articles on topic of efficient hot water supply over the years; see, for example, Hot-Water Circulation and Waiting for Hot Water. Proposed code changesNow to the proposal itself: P130-12 (AMPC)-Klein is the most important of the proposals I have submitted. The proposal can be viewed on the ICC website. (To navigate through the document, click on the “P130” link in the sidebar that appears on the left side of the screen.)Three other proposals — P89, P92 and P129 — concern recirculation pumps and pump controls for domestic hot water systems and are also worthy of your consideration. They can be found in the International Plumbing Code section on the ICC website linked to above. A proposed amendment to the plumbing codeCurrent building codes permit builders to install piping systems that waste too much hot water. I’m now drumming up support for a proposed amendment to the International Plumbing Code. RELATED ARTICLES GBA Encyclopedia: Hot-Water CirculationGBA Encyclopedia: Efficient supply layoutsGetting Into Hot Water — Part 3All About Water HeatersGetting In Hot WaterWaiting for Hot WaterProduct Guide: Taco Hot Water D’Mand System Gary Klein: Residential Hot Water Distribution Gary Klein is the managing partner of Affiliated International Management. His firm provides consulting on sustainability, primarily on the water-energy-carbon connection.last_img read more